Category Archives: Public Cloud

Another AWS leak exposes 150,000 Patient Home Monitoring Corp. client records

Another publicly accessible Amazon S3 repository has been once again been left exposing sensitive consumer information, this time affecting approximately 150,000 U.S. patients.

Kromtech Security Researchers discovered the exposed server belonging to Patient Home Monitoring Corp. which contained in 47.5 GB worth of data in the form of 316,363 PDF reports detailing weekly blood test results including patient and doctor names, case management notes, other client information and the Development Server Backup.

The vulnerable server was spotted on Sept. 29 and researchers said they notified the company on Oct 5. and by Oct. 6, the bucket had been secured. Kromtech pointed out that the company’s privacy page stated that patients have the right to be notified when their information is being accessed and that it’s unclear how or if patients will be notified of the incident.

The HIPAA Breach Notification Rule requires covered entities to notify affected individuals, HHS, and in some cases, the media of a breach of unsecured PHI. Most notifications must be provided without unreasonable delay and no later than 60 days following the discovery of a breach. fines can range from $100 to $50,000 per violation (or per record), with a maximum penalty of $1.5 million per year for each violation.

Some researchers aren’t surprised that admins are misconfiguring Amazon S3 buckets and leaving them exposed with the rapid adoption of the new technology.

“The Amazon S3 bucket can be easily switched from private to public access – with public being the default.” Josh Mayfield, platform specialist, Immediate Insight at FireMon said. “With the speed that organizations are moving to AWS and cloud infrastructure, it is only natural to miss something.”

Mayfield said companies should have policy controls that are automated irrespective of future technology so that admins don’t have to sacrifice security for speed and that added that policy management consoles with the flexibility to handle heterogeneous infrastructures and devices are invaluable.

Other researchers weren’t as forgiving. AlienVault Security Advocate Javvad Malik said the issue of misconfigured cloud services is a growing problem and a lack of skill may be to blame.

“As more and more companies migrate datasets to the cloud, it is becoming apparent that many lack the cloud skills needed to secure the cloud infrastructure, gain assurance that the cloud infrastructure is secured appropriately, or monitor their cloud environments for unauthorized access,” Malik said. “While cloud can bring benefits of having a resilient infrastructure, security cannot be outsourced, and much of the responsibility remains with the customer.”

Malik added that unfortunately, the people affected the most are the patients who have had their sensitive information exposed. Researchers agreed mistakes like this emphasize the impact breaches like this can have on individuals.

The narrative surrounding breaches is so often defined by the financial implications, but the impact of medical records being leaked on individuals could be equally if not more damaging,” DomainTools Senior Sybersecurity Threat Researcher Kyle Wilhoit said. “Revealing potentially sensitive personally identifiable information could impact an individual’s employment or it could be used by criminals/state entities for targeted attacks, such as spear phishing.”

Wilhoit said Medical organizations need to start taking the data they have access to as seriously as financial organizations, all assets must be discovered and tested against current vulnerabilities and patches must be deployed quickly.

Third parties leave your network open to attacks

With the Target example as the high-water mark, enterprises need to worry about the lack of security on the part of third-party providers that have access to internal systems.

Most businesses hire third-party providers to fill in when they lack in-house resources. It is often necessary to allow third-party vendors access to their network. But after Target’s network was breached a few years ago because of an HVAC vendor’s lack of security, the focus continues to be on how to allow third parties access to the network without creating a security hole.

The use of third-party providers is widespread, as are breaches associated with them. Identity risk and lifestyle solution provider SecZetta claims that on average, 40 percent of the workforce make up third parties. A recent survey done by Soha Systems notes that 63 percent of all data breaches can be attributed to a third party. “The increased reliance on third-party employees, coupled with the growing sophistication of hackers, has led to the current identity and access management crisis that most businesses are faced with today — whether they realize it or not,” a SecZetta blog post stated.

Rick Caccia, CMO at Exabeam, explained that the Target breach shined a light on the risks that come with trusted partners. On one hand, they often have access to the most sensitive data and systems within a firm’s environment. On the other, the firm has little insight into the partner’s own security processes and doesn’t really know the partner’s employees or their routines.

David Baker, vice president of operations at Bugcrowd, said “The rule of thumb most CSOs live by is that you only use a third party if they do something better than you. So whether that’s delivering a package or managing your data center, if an outsourced third party does it better, it makes sense to use them. This extends to security.”

For example, a large number of organizations have outsourced their data centers to Amazon Web Services (AWS) not only because the functionality of building the technology on AWS is better than what organizations can achieve on their own, but also because the security offered is better than what companies can build themselves, he said.

“If you use a third party and want to avoid something like what happened with Target, you need to have a process by which you select those third parties, and a big part of that criteria should be security. Security has to be something you can measure that they do better than you,” Baker said.

Markus Jakobsson, chief scientist at Agari, said the one big disadvantage to working with third-party vendors is the loss of control over security. “Not only does each vendor create a new entry point into an organization’s network for cyber criminals to exploit, but it also means every employee for that vendor is now a potential target to breach your brand. Unfortunately, the only way to ensure your company is not exposed to greater risks is by keeping everything in-house. But in today’s digital world, this isn’t a reality.”

Mike McKee, CEO of ObserveIT, said the lack of visibility into what users at third-party providers are doing – accidentally or intentionally – is a huge security risk.

“Every organization must ensure it has identified the outside parties with access to systems and data and have secure procedures in place, strict policies for these users to follow, and effective technology in place to monitor and detect if the third parties are putting their organization at risk,” he said.

It is the cost of doing business that leaves your network vulnerable to third parties, said Yitzhak (Itzik) Vager, vice president of cyber product management and business development at Verint Systems. Manufacturers connect directly to suppliers to manage just-in-time production. Accounting departments connect to external invoicing and receipt systems, and the marketing team has given all types of automated solutions access to the network infrastructure.

“Organizations need to assume that they have been already breached by a third-party leaving a hole in your network, and therefore they need to move to detection and response area solutions that consider the big picture, delivering complete visibility by detecting across the entire network, endpoints and payloads.”

Richard Henderson, Global Security Strategist at Absolute, agrees. ​”In the majority of cases, companies will have no way to learn if those partners have a breach or fall prey to atta​ck. Add to this that regulators (and customers) really don’t care if someone else was responsibl​e and it seems like an unwinnable battle. After the damage is done, organizations are left picking up the pieces and will be the ones called to task and held accountable.”

Carl Herberger, vice president of security solutions at Radware, said that business units are under a lot of pressure to leverage new solutions to speed time-to-market and reduce costs. Typically, security is a secondary consideration.

“Most of these business teams don’t have the skills or knowledge to assess security requirements and can result in partnering with a vendor who may leave the company’s networks open to attack,” Herberger said.

If an enterprise lets a third party onto their network, regardless of the reason, that third party then becomes an integral part of their security perimeter, notes Amir Jerbi, CTO of container security company Aqua Security. “Organizations should therefore vet third parties for their security measures and practices and ensure they are aligned with their own, and furthermore, periodically check and test those practices to verify they are still in compliance. These checks may (and should) cover systems, process and people.”

Alertsec’s CEO Ebba Blitz advises to make sure everyone plays by your rules. If full disk encryption is mandated for your own staff, make sure that your third parties do the same. “All too many third parties log into your network from unknown devices – devices that you don’t manage and can’t control, unless they are enrolled in your network. Make sure data only flows to encrypted devices, whether they are enrolled in your IT infrastructure or not.”

Third-party risk management

The market has pushed forward with third-party risk management programs to answer this dilemma. A program such as this would tell if a third party was located offshore or onshore, use a corporate issued device or a personal device, have had a background check performed, and whether they will be performing a critical function for the organization.

“When it comes to the cyber world, vendors must demonstrate that they understand security and have a mature security program in place, including policies and employee training,” noted Asher DeMetz, manager- security consulting at Sungard Availability Services. Any third-party systems connected to the company’s network would need to have a proper business function and owner, and align to the company’s own security program (secure, monitored, controlled).

“The software or hardware would need to be validated with the correct security controls and attestation of security testing, and possibly compliance. If the third party is making configuration changes, these would have to go through proper change-management channels to ensure that they align to the security program and don’t introduce risk into the environment,” DeMetz added.

Risk management involving external actors can be a very challenging activity for a variety of reasons, said Bluelock Director of Engineering Derek Brost. “There are two major factors for consideration. First, is sufficiently involving legal counsel to ensure contractual designation of responsibility, diligence and due care. As a backstop, this should also permit enforcement or litigation related to reclaiming loss or damage if things go awry. Second, is allocating continuous resources for proper control and oversight of external activities in the form of authentication management, timely activity analysis, and especially audit review.”

Unfortunately, businesses commonly involve third parties for cost reduction or “quick fixes,” so an adequate level of investment may not be considered in the budget or overall cost for administering external actors, said Brost. However, like all risk management activities, these costs need to be considered up-front as part of the overall tolerance and loss potential.

Kennet Westby, president and co-founder of Coalfire, said every organization should have a robust third-party vendor management program that is built to support the validation that critical vendors are delivering on their committed services. Part of that vendor management process should be to validate that your vendor has internal security controls. If your vendor management program requires these third parties to operate at an even greater standard than your internal controls, you can actually reduce risk more than if internally managed.

That brings us to identity access management. As SecZetta explained in a blog post, no person or department is in charge of managing non-employee identities (people data) and their relationships at most companies. IT might provide access, but the initial access and managing of non-employee changes is charged to HR or procurement.

This is a challenge, especially in cases where non-employees have greater access to sensitive information than internal employees. If a non-employee is granted access to these sensitive systems for a nine-month period but finishes the job early after six months, there are three months in which the non-employee may still have access to sensitive systems. These are exactly the types of accounts that hackers look for when trying to penetrate systems and steal data, according to SecZetta.

Ryan Stolte, co-founder and CTO at Bay Dynamics, said keeping track of who is doing what is a daunting task. “Instead of trying to boil the ocean, keeping tabs on every user for every vendor, security teams must hone in on those that access the company’s most valued applications and systems.”

Instead of trying to boil the ocean, keeping tabs on every user for every vendor, security teams must hone in on those that access the company’s most valued applications and systems.
Ryan Stolte, co-founder and CTO at Bay Dynamics

Effective vendor risk management begins with identifying your crown jewels and the impact to your organization if those crown jewels were compromised, he said. Then, look at which vendors have access to those crown jewels and continuously monitor not just the vendor users’ activity, but also their team members and fellow users in the larger group. If your security tools flag an unusual behavior coming from a vendor user, it’s important to engage the application owner who governs the application at risk, asking the owner to qualify if the behavior is unusual or business justified. If the behavior is unusual, that threat alert should go to the top of the investigation pile.

“It’s important to consider that often third-party vendors are non-malicious threats. Oftentimes, vendor employees are less conscious than full-time employees of good cyber security hygiene and therefore unintentionally expose your company to risk,” he said.

Viewpost’s CSO Chris Pierson said that having a well-developed vendor assurance program is necessary to oversee, quantify, communicate and mitigate risks. This program should consider the company mission, goals and objectives for the vendor, and provide a review process that looks at all types of risk – cybersecurity, privacy, regulatory/legal, financial, operational and reputational.

All vendor risks should then be scored, owned by the business line executive responsible for the product/service, and depending on level of harm, socialized and even approved by a governance risk committee. “By rating your vendors based on the criticality of the product/service they provide and the risks, the company can more adequately manage these risks, request mitigating controls, or off-board the vendor,” said Pierson.

Rod Murchison, vice president of product management at CrowdStrike, said when it comes to security, being knowledgeable after an event happens is insufficient. “Real-time visibility into the security posture of your network is something every organization should strive to achieve and maintain going forward,” he said.

To mitigate these types of threats, the most sophisticated endpoint security solutions can sense and analyze enough data in real-time to ensure that breaches and intrusions are observed in real-time, he added. “These new solutions leverage advancements in machine learning, artificial intelligence and analytics so organizations can quickly observe and fill unintentional, and sometimes intentional, holes left by third-party organizations.”

With the growing landscape of global privacy regulations, such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the ability to control the uses of data throughout its life cycle will be critical. Strong access management controls can help, but often data masking and anonymization need to be implemented to manage access to key data fields, said Focal Point Data Risk’s Data Privacy Practice Leader Eric Dieterich.

What’s the solution?

Third-party access requires a layered security approach with dynamic contextual access control applied throughout, said Gerry Gebel, vice president of business development at Axiomatics. For example, one layer of security is to dynamically control who can access your network. Another layer would be to control access to APIs, data and other assets once these third parties are on the network.

Caccia advises that third-party access to assets is a perfect scenario for behavioral analytics, where the system baselines normal behavior of users on the network, even with limited knowledge of who those users actually are. “User behavior analytics (UBA) should be table stakes for any firm that works with partners extensively; it’s the best – perhaps only – way to understand and control what once-removed users are doing on your network and with your data,” he said.

Henderson recommended that companies make sure governance policies around vendor management are bolstered and reinforced. This should include policies around regular and random audits of those vendors. Those audits should have the ability to return quantifiable and definable metrics.

Also when it comes to creating and drafting contracts with these vendors, it’s critical that the appropriate sections clearly define the security and privacy obligations expected of the vendor are included.

“I like the idea of inserting data canaries into the record sets that are shared with third parties and then watching for those canaries to pop up in dumps online. You would be amazed at how often data leaks onto the web and shows up in places like pastebin,” Henderson said. “Other things that make me nervous about this problem are quite simply the fact that all the staff, resources, tools and technologies can often be defeated by nothing more than some middle manager somewhere dumping a huge amount of customer data into a spreadsheet then sending it off via email to some previously unknown third party contracted by a business unit to run a bulk email campaign.”

For other enterprises an important lesson is to ensure that third parties have no way to reach those portions of the network, he advised. “Microsegmentation of your environment, as well as many other tools designed to keep traffic from co-mingling, can stop or at the very least, slow down an attacker, giving your security teams valuable time to detect and respond to an incident,” he said.

While it’s not possible to avoid third parties, Javvad Malik, security advocate at AlienVault, said there are many fundamental security practices that can help mitigate the risks. Examples of such would include:

  • Knowing your assets – by understanding your assets, particularly critical ones, it can be easier to determine effectively what systems third parties should have access to and restricting it to those.
  • Monitoring controls – having in place effective monitoring to determine whether third parties are only accessing systems they should and in a manner they should. Behavioral monitoring can help in this regard by highlighting where activity falls outside of normal parameters.
  • Segregation – by segregating networks and assets, one can contain any breaches to one specific area.
  • Assurance – proactively seek out regular assurance that the security controls implemented are working as intended.

Jeremy Koppen, FireEye principal consultant, said there are four security controls that should be discussed regarding third-party access:

  • Assign a unique user account to each vendor user to better monitor each account and identify abnormal activity.
  • Require two-factor authentication for access to applications and resources that could provide direct or indirect access to the internal network. This protects an organization in case the vendor’s user credentials are compromised.
  • Restrict all third-party accounts to only allow access to systems and networks required.
  • Disable all accounts within the environment upon termination of third-party relationship.

In the enterprise application development world, Jerbi sees many companies being caught off guard by third-party use of emerging technologies such as virtual containers. If a company is using containerized applications from a third party, that application should be vetted for container-specific security risks such as vulnerabilities in container images, hard–coded secrets and configuration flaws.

Baker said there are plenty of best practices to look for when choosing a vendor: how transparent is their security? Do they have third-party security testing? Do they share the results of that testing? “In the end, choosing a secure vendor alone won’t necessarily prevent another Target, but it will prevent the third-party firms you work with from being the weak link,” he said.

Part 1: What is a Bitcoin and how does it work?

So I’ve been asked several times in the past couple of weeks, what is a Bitcoin and how does it work?

Bitcoin is a form of digital currency, created and held electronically. No one controls it. Bitcoins aren’t printed, like dollars or euros – they’re produced by people, and increasingly businesses, running computers all around the world, using software that solves mathematical problems.

It’s the first example of a growing category of money known as cryptocurrency.

What makes it different from normal currencies?

Bitcoin can be used to buy things electronically. In that sense, it’s like conventional dollars, euros, or yen, which are also traded digitally.

However, bitcoin’s most important characteristic, and the thing that makes it different to conventional money, is that it is decentralized. No single institution controls the bitcoin network. This puts some people at ease, because it means that a large bank can’t control their money.

Who created it?

A software developer called Satoshi Nakamoto proposed bitcoin, which was an electronic payment system based on mathematical proof. The idea was to produce a currency independent of any central authority, transferable electronically, more or less instantly, with very low transaction fees.

Who prints it?
No one. This currency isn’t physically printed in the shadows by a central bank, unaccountable to the population, and making its own rules. Those banks can simply produce more money to cover the national debt, thus devaluing their currency.

Instead, bitcoin is created digitally, by a community of people that anyone can join. Bitcoins are ‘mined’, using computing power in a distributed network.

This network also processes transactions made with the virtual currency, effectively making bitcoin its own payment network.

So you can’t churn out unlimited bitcoins?

That’s right. The bitcoin protocol – the rules that make bitcoin work – say that only 21 million bitcoins can ever be created by miners. However, these coins can be divided into smaller parts (the smallest divisible amount is one hundred millionth of a bitcoin and is called a ‘Satoshi’, after the founder of bitcoin).

What is bitcoin based on?

Conventional currency has been based on gold or silver. Theoretically, you knew that if you handed over a dollar at the bank, you could get some gold back (although this didn’t actually work in practice). But bitcoin isn’t based on gold; it’s based on mathmatics.

Around the world, people are using software programs that follow a mathematical formula to produce bitcoins. The mathematical formula is freely available, so that anyone can check it.

The software is also open source, meaning that anyone can look at it to make sure that it does what it is supposed to.

What are its characteristics?

Bitcoin has several important features that set it apart from government-backed currencies.

1. It’s decentralized

The bitcoin network isn’t controlled by one central authority. Every machine that mines bitcoin and processes transactions makes up a part of the network, and the machines work together. That means that, in theory, one central authority can’t tinker with monetary policy and cause a meltdown – or simply decide to take people’s bitcoins away from them, as the Central European Bank decided to do in Cyprus in early 2013. And if some part of the network goes offline for some reason, the money keeps on flowing.

2. It’s easy to set up

Conventional banks make you jump through hoops simply to open a bank account. Setting up merchant accounts for payment is another dauting task, beset by bureaucracy. However, you can set up a bitcoin address in seconds, no questions asked, and with no fees payable.

3. It’s anonymous

Well, kind of. Users can hold multiple bitcoin addresses, and they aren’t linked to names, addresses, or other personally identifying information. However…

4. It’s completely transparent

…bitcoin stores details of every single transaction that ever happened in the network in a huge version of a general ledger, called the blockchain. The blockchain tells all.

If you have a publicly used bitcoin address, anyone can tell how many bitcoins are stored at that address. They just don’t know that it’s yours.

There are measures that people can take to make their activities more opaque on the bitcoin network, though, such as not using the same bitcoin addresses consistently, and not transferring lots of bitcoin to a single address.

5. Transaction fees are miniscule

Your bank may (most likely) charge you a fee for international transfers. Bitcoin doesn’t.

6. It’s fast

You can send money anywhere and it will arrive minutes later, as soon as the bitcoin network processes the payment.

7. It’s non-repudiable

When your bitcoins are sent, there’s no getting them back, unless the recipient returns them to you. They’re gone forever.

So, bitcoin has a lot going for it, in theory. But how does it work, in practice? Stayed tuned for more tomorrow.


Breach exposes at least 58 million accounts, includes names, jobs, and more

Another breach!  “Cloud” is often touted as being more secure than on-premise hosting.  But that only goes if your cloud provider does proper pro-active security.  In the case mentioned in the article, they didn’t.  How does your cloud provider do?   Are they open about security, or is it hidden behind an SLA?
“Buyer beware” it’s priceless.

With 2 months left, more than 2.2 billion records dumped so far in 2016.

There has been yet another major data breach, this time exposing names, IP addresses, birth dates, e-mail addresses, vehicle data, and occupations of at least 58 million subscribers, researchers said.

The trove was mined from a poorly secured database and then published and later removed at least three times over the past week, according to this analysis from security firm Risk Based Security. Based on conversations with a Twitter user who first published links to the leaked data, the researchers believe the data was stored on servers belonging to Modern Business Solutions, a company that provides data storage and database hosting services.

Shortly after researchers contacted Modern Business Solutions, the leaky database was secured, but the researchers said they never received a response from anyone at the firm, which claims to be located in Austin, Texas. Officials with Modern Business Solutions didn’t respond to several messages left seeking comment and additional details.

Risk Based Security said the actual number of exposed records may be almost 260 million. The company based this possibility on an update researchers received from the Twitter user who originally reported the leak. The update claimed the discovery of an additional table that contained 258 million rows of personal data. By the time the update came, however, the database had already been secured, and Risk Based Security was unable to confirm the claim. The official tally cited Wednesday by breach notification service Have I Been Pwned? is 58.8 million accounts. In all, the breach resulted in 34,000 notifications being sent to Have I Been Pwned? users monitoring e-mail addresses and 3,000 users monitoring domains.



According to Risk Based Security, the account information was compiled using the open source MongoDB database application. The researchers believe the unsecured data was first spotted using the Shodan search engine. The publication of the data happened when a party that first identified the leak shared it with friends rather than privately reporting it to Modern Business Solutions.

By the tally of Risk Based Security, there have been 2,928 publicly disclosed data breaches so far in 2016 that have exposed more than 2.2 billion records. The figures provide a stark reminder of why it’s usually a good idea to omit or falsify as much requested data as possible when registering with both online and offline services. It’s also a good idea to use a password manager, although this leak was unusual in that it didn’t contain any form of user password, most likely because the data was being stored on behalf of one or more other services.



Yahoo says 500 million accounts stolen

500 million accounts stolen
Yahoo (YHOO, Tech30) confirmed on Thursday data “associated with at least 500 million user accounts” have been stolen in what may be one of the largest cybersecurity breaches ever.

The company said it believes a “state-sponsored actor” was behind the data breach, meaning an individual acting on behalf of a government. The breach is said to have occurred in late 2014.

“The account information may have included names, email addresses, telephone numbers, dates of birth, hashed passwords (the vast majority with bcrypt) and, in some cases, encrypted or unencrypted security questions and answers,” Yahoo said in a statement.

Yahoo urges users to change their password and security questions and to review their accounts for suspicious activity.

The silver lining for users — if there is one — is that sensitive financial data like bank account numbers and credit card data are not believed to be included in the stolen information, according to Yahoo.

Yahoo is working with law enforcement to learn more about the breach.

“The FBI is aware of the intrusion and investigating the matter,” an FBI spokesperson said. “We take these types of breaches very seriously and will determine how this occurred and who is responsible. We will continue to work with the private sector and share information so they can safeguard their systems against the actions of persistent cyber criminals.”

A large-scale data breach was first rumored in August when a hacker who goes by the name of “Peace” claimed to be selling data from 200 million Yahoo users online. The same hacker has previously claimed to sell stolen accounts from LinkedIn (LNKD, Tech30) and MySpace.

Yahoo originally said it was “aware of a claim” and was investigating the situation. Nearly two months later, it turns out the situation is even worse.

“This is massive,” said cybersecurity expert Per Thorsheim on the scale of the hack. “It will cause ripples online for years to come.”

U.S. Sen. Richard Blumenthal called for tougher legislation to “make sure companies are properly and promptly notifying consumers when their data has been compromised.”

“If Yahoo knew about the hack as early as August, and failed to coordinate with law enforcement, taking this long to confirm the breach is a blatant betrayal of their users’ trust,” he said in a statement.


Re/code first reported Yahoo would confirm the data breach.

The data breach comes at a sensitive time for Yahoo.

Verizon (VZ, Tech30) agreed to buy Yahoo’s core properties for $4.83 billion in late July, just days before the hack was first reported. The deal is expected to close in the first quarter of 2017.

Verizon says it only learned of the breach this week.

“Within the last two days, we were notified of Yahoo’s security incident,” a spokesperson for Verizon said in a statement provided to CNNMoney.

We understand Yahoo is conducting an active investigation of this matter, but we otherwise have limited information and understanding of the impact.”

The mega-breach could create a headache for both companies, including damaging press, scrutiny from regulators and a user exodus, just as they’re working to close the deal and figure out the future of Yahoo.

Blumenthal said law enforcement and regulators “should investigate whether Yahoo may have concealed its knowledge of this breach in order to artificially bolster its valuation in its pending acquisition by Verizon.”



Dropbox employee’s password reuse led to theft of 60M+ user credentials

Dropbox disclosed earlier this week that a large chunk of its users’ credentials obtained in 2012 was floating around on the dark web. But that number may have been much higher than we originally thought.

Credentials for more than 60 million accounts were taken, as first reported by Motherboard and confirmed by TechCrunch sources. The revelation of a password breach at Dropbox is an evolution of the company’s stance on the 2012 incident — the company initially said that user emails were the only data stolen.

Here’s the exact phrasing from the 2012 blog post:
A stolen password was also used to access an employee Dropbox account containing a project document with user email addresses. We believe this improper access is what led to the spam. We’re sorry about this, and have put additional controls in place to help make sure it doesn’t happen again.

Dropbox disclosed in 2012 that an employee’s password was acquired and used to access a document with email addresses, but did not disclose that passwords were also acquired in the theft. Because Dropbox stores its user passwords hashed and salted, that’s technically accurate — it seems that hackers were only able to obtain hashed files of Dropbox user passwords and were unable to crack them. But it does appear that more information was taken from Dropbox than was previously let on, and it’s strange that it’s taken this long for the breach to surface.

According to a Dropbox source, in addition to the user emails initially disclosed in 2012, a batch of hashed passwords associated with those emails was also taken. At the time of the breach, Dropbox was moving away from using the hashing function SHA-1, a standard algorithm at the time, and replacing it with the more robust standard called bcrypt. Some of the stolen passwords were hashed with SHA-1, while 32 million were hashed with bcrypt, Motherboard reports. The passwords were also secured with a salt, a random data string added to strengthen the hash. Even though these passwords have now been dumped online, it does not appear that the hash protections have been cracked.

In a November 2012 interview with Forbes, Dropbox CEO Drew Houston said the service had drawn around 100 million users, double from the same a year prior. The company most-recently said it now has 500 million registered users, though it won’t say exactly how many of those are monthly active users. If Dropbox had roughly 100 million users at the same time the hack occurred, this breach represented a staggering three-fifths of the company’s user base.

Hackers who used an employee’s password, re-used from the LinkedIn breach, to access Dropbox’s corporate network and steal the user credentials, sources said. So the fault doesn’t 100% rest on Dropbox, though it’s still a breakdown of security standards within the company and emphasizes the perils of password re-use that can extend into a corporate environment.

Dropbox has taken steps to ensure that its employees don’t reuse passwords on their corporate accounts, Patrick Heim, head of trust and security for Dropbox, told TechCrunch. The company has licensed the password management service 1Password for all employees, in an effort to encourage the use of unique and strong passwords. Dropbox also requires two-factor authentication for all internal systems, Heim said.

Given that Dropbox has continued to grow and there have been no colossal security snafus (that we know about) the company appears to have gotten by largely unscathed. Online cloud storage services are frequent targets for hackers because of the variety of content stored. One of the most poignant examples is the massive private celebrity photo leak that happened in September 2014. Dropbox was not linked to that hack, and sources stress that the passwords contained in the 2012 breach do not appear to have been cracked.

And again, this happened in 2012, when Dropbox was still a young company (worth only $4 billion, compared to its $10 billion valuation now). Security breaches like this occur, though for Dropbox to be so light on the details can be frustrating given the necessity of transparency during security breaches.


Zero-Day Warning! Ransomware targets Microsoft Office 365 Users

If just relying on the security tools of Microsoft Office 365 can protect you from cyber attacks, you are wrong.

Variants of Cerber Ransomware are now targeting MS Office 365 email users with a massive zero-day attack that has the ability to bypass Office 365’s built-in security tools.

According to a report published by cloud security provider Avanan, the massive zero-day Cerber ransomware attack targeted Microsoft Office 365 users with spam or phishing emails carrying malicious file attachments.

The Cerber ransomware is invoked via Macros. Yes, it’s hard to believe but even in 2016, a single MS Office document could compromise your system by enabling ‘Macros‘.

Locky and Dridex ransomware malware also made use of the malicious Macros to hijack systems. Over $22 Million were pilfered from the UK banks with the Dridex Malware that got triggered via a nasty macro virus.

You can see a screenshot of the malicious document in the latest malware campaign below, targeting Microsoft Office 365 users:


While the security firm did not specify the exact number of users possibly hit by the ransomware, Microsoft reported in its first quarter 2016 that there are almost 18.2 Million Office 365 subscribers.

“While difficult to precisely measure how many users got infected,” Avanan estimated that “roughly 57 percent of organizations using Office 365 received at least one copy of the malware into one of their corporate mailboxes during the time of the attack.”

Although Cerber originally emerged in March, the malware campaign targeting Office 365 users began on June 22. However, Microsoft started blocking the malicious file attachment on June 23.

The Cerber Ransomware not only encrypts user files and displays a ransom note, but also takes over the user’s audio system to read out its ransom note informing them that their files were encrypted.

The ransomware encrypts files with AES-256 encryption, asking victims to pay 1.24 Bitcoin (nearly US$810) for the decryption key.

How to Protect Yourself from Cerber Ransomware

In order to prevent yourself from the Cerber or any ransomware attack:

  • Always keep your system and antivirus up-to-date.
  • Regularly backup your files in an external hard-drive.
  • Disable Macros in your MS Office programs.
  • Always beware of phishing emails, spams, and clicking the malicious attachment.
  • You can also use an Intrusion detection system (IDS), to help you quickly detect malware and other threats in your network.

AWS and Microsoft get FedRAMP approval for sensitive cloud data


Another day, another piece of good news for both Microsoft Azure and Amazon Web Services (AWS); the vendors are two of three companies which have been given authority by the US government for federal agencies to use them for sensitive cloud data.

Azure and AWS, alongside CSRA’s ARC-P IaaS, have been given the green light under the new FedRAMP High Baseline requirements. The full, mammoth spreadsheet documenting each guideline can be found on the FedRAMP website (XLS), but at a general level the requirements enable government bodies to put ‘high impact’ data – including data which involves the protection of life and financial ruin – in the cloud.

Chanelle Sirmons, communications lead for FedRAMP, explained in an official post: “While 80% of federal information is categorised at low and moderate impact levels, this only represents about 50% of federal IT spend. Now that FedRAMP has set the requirements for high impact levels, that breaks open the remaining 50% of the $80 billion a year the US government spends on IT that could potentially move to the cloud securely.”

“We are pleased to have achieved the FedRAMP high baseline, giving agencies a simplified path to moving their highly sensitive workloads to AWS so they can immediately begin taking advantage of the cloud’s agility and cost savings,” said Teresa Carlson, AWS VP worldwide public sector in a statement. A statement from Microsoft read: “Microsoft remains committed to delivering the most complete, trusted cloud platform to customers. This accreditation helps demonstrate our differentiated ability to support the unique needs of government agencies as they transition to the cloud.”

Amazon and Microsoft have had their clouds FedRAMP accredited since June and October 2013 respectively – back when the latter was still known as Windows Azure – while ARC-P was the first vendor to receive the federal stamp of approval in 2012. Three years on, this represents a major step forward for government use of cloud technologies.

Hacker puts up 167 Million LinkedIn Passwords for Sale


LinkedIn’s 2012 data breach was much worse than anybody first thought.

In 2012, LinkedIn suffered a massive data breach in which more than 6 Million users accounts login details, including encrypted passwords, were posted online by a Russian hacker.

Now, it turns out that it was not just 6 Million users who got their login details stolen.

Latest reports emerged that the 2012’s LinkedIn data breach may have resulted in the online sale of sensitive account information, including emails and passwords, of about 117 Million LinkedIn users.

Almost after 4 years, a hacker under the nickname “Peace” is offering for sale what he/she claims to be the database of 167 Million emails and hashed passwords, which included 117 Million already cracked passwords, belonging to LinkedIn users.

The hacker, who is selling the stolen data on the illegal Dark Web marketplace “The Real Deal” for 5 Bitcoins (roughly $2,200), has spoken to Motherboard, confirming these logins come from the 2012 data breach.

Since the passwords have been initially encrypted with the SHA1 algorithm, with “no salt,” it just took ‘LeakedSource‘, the paid search engine for hacked data, 72 hours to crack roughly 90% of the passwords.

Troy Hunt, an independent researcher who operates “Have I Been Pwned?” site, reached out to a number of the victims who confirmed to Hunt that the leaked credentials were legitimate.

The whole incident proved that LinkedIn stored your passwords in an insecure way and that the company did not make it known exactly how widespread the data breach was at the time.

In response to this incident, a LinkedIn spokesperson informs that the company is investigating the matter.

In 2015, Linkedin also agreed to settle a class-action lawsuit over 2012’s security breach by paying a total of $1.25 million to victims in the U.S, means $50 to each of them.

According to the lawsuit, the company violated its privacy policy and an agreement with premium subscribers that promised it would keep their personal information safe.

However, now new reports suggest that a total 167 Million LinkedIn accounts were breached, instead of just 6 million.

Assuming, if at least 30% of hacked LinkedIn Accounts belongs to Americans, then the company has to pay more than $15 Million.

Meanwhile, I recommend you to change your passwords (and keep a longer and stronger one this time) and enable two-factor authentication for your LinkedIn accounts as soon as possible. Also, do the same for other online accounts if you are using same passwords on multiple sites.

Do you see a pattern here?  Social media is getting hit hard so as I said above and many times before, change your passwords frequently and make then stronger !!!

Hacker Selling 65 Million Passwords From Tumblr Data Breach


Earlier this month Tumblr revealed that a third party had obtained access to a set of e-mail addresses and passwords dating back from early 2013, before being acquired by Yahoo.

At that time, Tumblr did not reveal the number of affected users, but in reality, around 65,469,298 accounts credentials were leaked in the 2013 Tumblr data breach, according to security expert Troy Hunt, who runs the site Have I Been Pwned.

“As soon as we became aware of this, our security team thoroughly investigated the matter. Our analysis gives us no reason to believe that this information was used to access Tumblr accounts,” read Tumblr’s blog.

A Hacker, who is going by “peace_of_mind,” is selling the Tumblr data for 0.4255 Bitcoin ($225) on the darknet marketplace The Real Deal.

The compromised data includes 65,469,298 unique e-mail addresses and “salted & hashed passwords.”

The Same hacker is also selling the compromised login account data from Fling, LinkedIn, and MySpace. I wonder if he has more data sets yet to sell…

Salt makes passwords hard to crack, but you should still probably change it.